노자 도덕경 Lao Tzu - Tao Te Ching 한영역 (일부)
생각의 틀을 다질 때 오래된 문헌들을 기본에 두는 것은 매우 의미있는 일이라 생각한다.
소위 고전 classic 이라 하는 것은 오랜 세월을 걸쳐 개정되고, 그 메시지가 시간과 사람들 사이에서 살아남아 오늘까지 숨쉬고 있는 것이기 때문이다. 흔히 말하는대로, 무언가 새로운 것을 떠올리다보면 참으로 많은 것이 오랜 옛날 이미 완성되어지고, 이야기되어졌던 것들인 경우가 대부분이다. 따라서 생각의 깊이를 더하고자 한다면 공중누각(空中樓閣)에 집착하지 말고 반석(盤石)이 있는 장소를 찾는 것이 더 현명한 길일 것이다.
고대의 경전들이 대부분 그러하듯이 노자 또한 고대부터 전국시대에 걸쳐 천천히 형성된 글들을 특정한 지향점을 두고 정리한 것들이다. 현재 우리에게 익숙한 노자는 왕필이 정리한 소위 '왕필본'이다. 나는 이 내용들이 전국시대까지 걸쳐 형성된 내용이니 만큼 실질적으로는 정치, 치세 그리고 처세술에 가까운 내용들을 시간이 지나며 신비주의적으로 받아들인 것으로 생각한다. 오래 산 동물이 별 의미없이 신비롭게 느껴지는 것처럼 말이다. 위노그랜드의 말처럼 "명백히 밝혀진 것보다 신비로운 것은 없다."
원문은 왕필본을, 영역은 James Legge 역이다.
道可道, 非常道, 名可名, 非常名.
The Tao that can be trodden is not the enduring and unchanging Tao.
The name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name.
(Conceived of as) having no name, it is the Originator of heaven and earth;
(Conceived of as) having a name, it is the Mother of all things.
Always without desire we must be found,
It its deep mystery we would sound;
But if desire always within us be,
Its outer fringe is all that we shall see.
Under these two aspects, it is really the same;
but as development takes place, it receives the different names.
Together we call them the Mystery.
Where the Mystery is the deepest is the gate of all that is subtle and wonderful.
All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is; they all know the skin of the skilful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what the want of skill is.
So it is that existence and non-existence give birth the one to (the idea of) the other;
that difficulty and ease produce the one (the idea of) the other;
that length and shortness fashion out the one the figure of the other;
that (the ideas of) height and lowness arise from the contrast of the one with the other;
that the musical notes and tones become harmonious through the relation of one with another;
and that being before and behind give the idea of one following anther.
Therefore the sage manages affairs without doing anything,
and conveys his instructions without the use of speech.
All thing spring up, and there is not one which declines to show itself;
they grow, and there is no claim made for their ownership;
they go through their processes, and there is no expectation (of a reward for the results).
The work is accomplished, and there is not resting in it (as an achievement).
The work is done, but how no one can see;
'Tis this that makes the power no cease to be.
不尙賢 使民不爭 不貴難得之貨 使民不爲盜
虛其心 實其腹 弱其志 强其骨
Not to value and employ men of superior ability is the way to keep the people from rivalry among themselves;
not to prize article which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming thieves;
not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is the way to keep their minds from disorder.
Therefore the sage, in the exercise of his government,
empties their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills, and strengthen their bones.
He constantly (tries to) keep them without knowledge and without desire, and where there are those who have knowledge, to keep them from presuming to act (on it). When there is this abstinence from action, good order is universal.
挫其銳 解其紛 和其光 同其塵
The Tao is (like) the emptiness of a vessel;
and in out employment of it we must be on our guard against all fulness.
How deep and unfathomable it is, as if it were the Honoured Ancestor of all things.
We should blunt our sharp points,
and unravel the complications of things;
we should attemper out brightness,
and bring ourselves into agreement with the obscurity of others.
How pure and still the Tao is, as if it would ever so continue!
I do not know whose son it is.
It might appear to have been before God.